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Cite This Work [62] In Vergil's poetic account of Octavian's victory at the sea-battle of Actium, the future emperor is allied with Venus, Neptune and Minerva. Her husband was the mighty god Vulcan. The Dutch band Shocking Blue had a number one hit on the Billboard Top Ten in 1970 with the song titled "Venus", which was also a hit when covered by Bananarama in 1986. The Latin name Venus ('love, charm') stems from Proto-Italic *wenos- ('desire'), ultimately from Proto-Indo-European (PIE) *wenh₁-os ('desire'; compare with Messapic Venas, Old Indic vánas 'desire'). With Mars, she gave birth to Timor (Phobos) the personification of fear who accompanied his father into battle, his twin Metus (Deimos) the personification of terror, Concordia (Harmonia) the goddess of harmony and concord, and the Cupids (Erotes) who were a collection of winged love deities who represented the different aspects of love. ; The Hydrads of Venus, who resemble huge animated sponges, appear in Planet Comics, in the Lost World section.If hurt, water can restore them to health. The Gen Julia was the family that included Julius Caesar, Augustus (Octavian) Caesar and his descendants. She was so important to Romans that they claimed her as their ancestress. Caesar dedicated the temple during his unprecedented and extraordinarily lavish quadruple triumph. Roman tradition made Venus the mother and protector of the Trojan prince Aeneas, ancestor of the Roman people. In one context, she is a goddess of prostitutes; in another, she turns the hearts of men and women from sexual vice to virtue.[13]. Eden, P.T., "Venus and the Cabbage" Hermes, 91, (1963) p. 456. Many female nudes from this period of sculpture whose subjects are unknown are in modern art history conventionally called 'Venus'es, even if they originally may have portrayed a mortal woman rather than operated as a cult statue of the goddess. Venus Heliopolitana ("Venus of Heliopolis Syriaca"), worshipped at Baalbek. [33][34], In 217 BC, in the early stages of the Second Punic War with Carthage, Rome suffered a disastrous defeat at the battle of Lake Trasimene. 1650 - 1700, by Peter Paul Rubens, Mars Being Disarmed by Venus (1822–25) by Jacques-Louis David, Birth of Venus (1863) by Alexandre Cabanel, Tannhäuser in the Venusberg (1901) by John Collier, Iris presenting the wounded Venus to Mars by Sir George Hayter, 1820 - Ante Library, Chatsworth House. Ovid uses acidalia only in the latter sense. "[16], Venus Acidalia, in Virgil's Aeneid (1.715–722, as mater acidalia). Please help us create teaching materials on Mesopotamia (including several complete lessons with worksheets, activities, answers, essay questions, and more), which will be free to download for teachers all over the world. The two goddesses both grew enamored with the mortal, so they fought until Zeus decided that Adonis would spend one-third the year with each of them and a third wherever he pleased. Schilling, R., in Bonnefoy, Y., and Doniger, W. (Editors). In the ancient Near East, love was personified in such goddesses as Ishtar and Astarte. While her equivalent in Greek mythology is Aphrodite, Venus was revered strongly because Romans claimed her as their ancestress.She was also the goddess of gardens and fields, because wherever she walked life emerged, plants grew and flowers bloomed. A festival of Venus Genetrix (September 26) was held under state auspices from 46 BC at her Temple in the Forum of Caesar, in fulfillment of a vow by Julius Caesar, who claimed her personal favour as his divine patron, and ancestral goddess of the Julian clan. As the goddess of sexuality, a degree of erotic beauty in her presentation was justified, which appealed to many artists and their patrons. [45], Vitruvius recommends that any new temple to Venus be sited according to rules laid down by the Etruscan haruspices, and built "near to the gate" of the city, where it would be less likely to contaminate "the matrons and youth with the influence of lust". When he emerges, he has to seek penance for his sins. [48], Venus was offered official (state-sponsored) cult in certain festivals of the Roman calendar. However, there are many fine wall paintings from Pompeii that depict Venus in different forms. Further titles or variants acquired by Venus through the same process, or through orthographic variance, include Libentia, Lubentina, and Lubentini. Venus Genetrix ("Venus the Mother"), as a goddess of motherhood and domesticity, with a festival on September 26, a personal ancestress of the Julian lineage and, more broadly, the divine ancestress of the Roman people. [20] Pliny the Elder, remarking Venus as a goddess of union and reconciliation, identifies the shrine with a legendary episode in Rome's earliest history, when the warring Romans and Sabines, carrying branches of myrtle, met there to make peace. [4] Juno is the equivalent to Hera, the Greek goddess for love and marriage. 116 ff (trans. Roman and Hellenistic art produced many variations on the goddess, often based on the Praxitlean type Aphrodite of Cnidus. Venus was central to many religious festivals, and was revered in Roman religion under numerous cult titles. [citation needed]. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Diove, or Iove are often associated with Love especially in correlation with Juno & Jove (Jupiter), a possible etymological origin of the word Love itself. Like other major Roman deities, Venus was ascribed a number of epithets to refer to different aspects or roles of the goddess. She seems to have been a favourite of Lucretius' patron, Memmius. Venus Libitina links Venus to a patron-goddess of funerals and undertakers, Libitina; a temple was dedicated to Venus Libitina in Libitina's grove on the Esquiline Hill, "hardly later than 300 BC. According to mythology, her son Aeneas fled from Troy to Italy. Some sources associate her with the myrtle-tree. Venus had several mortal lovers as well. There is a myth concerning Venus' and Mars' love affair and how Vulcan cunningly trapped them in bed with a net. Pliny the Elder, Natural History, 15, 119, cited in Wagenvoort, p. 180.

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